A. It is native in all kinds of damp habitats both natural and artificial. Where an uncut field of rushes is ploughed the rushes may reappear between the furrow slices. Toad rush (J. bufonius L.) (Syn. They are significant peat-formers. Because they can ride out intermittent dry spells, theyre useful for rain gardens and bioretention, and other features where water conditions are variable. Soft rush is abundant throughout the British Isles and is ubiquitous in moist situations and regions of high humidity. Hydrilla. Home>Native Plant Resource Center>Upper Peninsula Native Plants>Native Grasses, Rushes, and Sedges Grasses and sedges perform many important environmental functions. Rushes and sedges have similar strap like leaves to grasses, but are a different botanical family. It's excellent in container gardens. The extensive, golden-brown reedbeds that are formed by stands of Common reed are a familiar sight in our wetlands. Reeds and rushes are pond plants that will attract wildlife such as hummingbirds, dragonflies and butterflies to you water feature. J. effusus, called soft rush, is used to make the tatami mats of Japan. Pulling of clumped rushes is another method of control. True grasses, including ornamental grasses and bamboos, generally prefer sunny well drained spots. Leaves are alternate or all basal, grasslike or tubular, and expanded at the base into open or closed sheaths around the stems. True grasses, including ornamental grasses and bamboos, generally prefer sunny well drained spots. Stems are round in cross-section but not hollow. The flowers are wind or more rarely insect pollinated. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. It's technically leafless, with green cylindrical stems that are pointed at the tip. Typhaceae; Juncaceae; Cyperaceae; Poaceae; Ferns & Horsetails; Liverworts; Mosses; Galls; Fungi; Slime Moulds; Lichens; Algae, Bacteria, Virus Hard rush (J. inflexus L.) (Syn. Neither cattle nor sheep grazing alone has much effect on hard and soft rush. It is common through most of the British Isles. The best-known and largest genus is Juncus. Fruits of the three plant groups in question are a bit more distinctive than their flowers, with some sedges producing inch-long prickly clusters of beak-like fruits (above); by comparison, many rushes make tiny globular fruiting structures (below) less than one-eighth-inch in diameter. Some are leafy and grass-like, while others, known to Māori as wīwī, are leafless and consist of clumps of stems. The Plants Database includes the following 125 species of Juncus . Rushes have cylindrical leaves. Soft rush (J. effusus L.) (Syn. Goats will eat soft rush in grassland. Related varieties of pickerel rush: Blue to mauve or purple varieties are most common, but white-flowered pickerel rushes … Rushes favor the edges of ponds, bogs, and low, moist areas. They help create humus in the soil with their roots and leaves while holding slopes in place and protecting streambanks and other water edges from eroding. Bulrush, Any of the annual or perennial grasslike plants constituting the genus Scirpus, especially S. lacustris, in the sedge family, that bear solitary or much-clustered spikelets. Jointed rush (J. articulatus L.) (Syn. Slender rush flowers from June to September. shining-fruited rush, J. lampocarpus). J. obtusifolius). frog grass, saltweed, J. minutulus) The toad rush is the most important annual species of rush and is common throughout the UK. Cattle that acquire a taste for it may suffer blindness and death. Rushes occur mainly but not solely on poorly drained soils of low pH. Aquascapes Unlimited’s seed sown local ecotype species add natural wildlife benefits, promote biodiversity, and oftentimes require less maintenance in terms of fertilizers and pesticides. Fourteen days exposure is usually fatal. It flowers from May to September and fruits from July to October. Emergent plants are rooted in soil under water, but at least some or most of their stems and leaves extend above the water (e.g., rushes [Juncus spp.]). The rush family (Juncaceae) includes Juncus, the common rushes, and Luzula, the woodrushes. Illustrations from Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin, Version 3.1 by Eggers and Reed (2014) BOTANICAL TERMS: RUSHES (Juncus) • Capsule: fruit of rushes; contains three to dozens of seeds; in Juncus the seeds are tiny, barely visible with unaided eye • Tepals: the six, star-like scales that surround the capsule Some plants can cause itchy rashes when touched. and wood rushes (Luzula spp.). It is locally frequent throughout Britain. The sweet rush, or sweet flag, is Acorus calamus (family Acoraceae). Hard rush, the other main weedy species, is native in marshes, dune slacks, wet meadows or by water on neutral or base rich soils. Seed numbers per plant range from 5,300 to 34,000. The seeds are not ready to germinate until the April after shedding. Jointed rush can withstand mowing and grazing. In a study of the annual percent decline of toad rush seeds in cultivated soil there was no measurable loss of viability with time. They are topped with subtle, inconspicuous golden-brown flower clusters from spring to fall. The strongly rhizomatous rush may form extensive clonal patches. It is confined to wet heaths and upland moors where it is sought out by grazing animals early in the season, so it is a useful plant rather than a weed. But they’re not the only plants that can irritate your skin. Common rushes are used in many parts of the world for weaving into chair bottoms, mats, and basketwork, and the pith serves as wicks in open oil lamps and for tallow candles (rushlights). Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. These are only some of the native plants you could choose for your landscape- check with local gardeners, nurseries, and other plant experts for more! Plant my rushes Plant preferably between September and the end of November or between March and the end of April, when the winter reserves are formed and the temperatures are not too low. It occurs in wet meadows and pastures on less heavy soils poor in nutrients. amphibians, reptiles, ducks, etc.). It is native in all kinds of damp habitats both natural and artificial. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide. Juncus alpinoarticulatusNorthern Green Rush; Juncus arcticusBaltic Rush; Juncus articulatusJointed Rush; From late spring to summer, rounded heads of very small, greenish brown, scaly flowers emerge on the sides of the stems just below the stem tips. It makes a fascinating architectural accent in planters, beds, and moist borders. Updates? This field identification guide and accompanying factsheets have From them, check out 16 different Types of Philodendrons that you can grow indoors!. Birds and other various creatures eat and live in this type of bulrush. Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, & Non-flowering Plants in Illinois Return to the Home Page Click on the links below for information about individual plant species: Adiantum pedatum (Maidenhair Fern) Agrostis gigantea (Redtop) Agrostis hyemalis (Tickle Grass) Agrostis perennans (Upland Bent) This hugely impressive bulrush is, in the wild, found growing beside lakes and ponds. Only a few of the British species are of importance as weeds and in many other situations rushes are valuable constituents of the natural vegetation. Sedges have stems that are triangular in cross section and if they have leaves there are three rows. As its name indicates, path rush is tolerant of trampling and soil compaction so it will survive in busier areas of the garden, such as along a path or around stepping-stones. Reeds and rushes are pond plants that will attract wildlife such as hummingbirds, dragonflies and butterflies to you water feature. This perennial rush is native in marshes, dune slacks, wet meadows or by water. It is still under construction with more species to be added. Sowing to a short-term crop followed by further surface cultivations may be best before establishing a long-term sward. Rushes The word ‘rush’ gets used for plants in many botanical families: Juncus, Cyperus, Eleocharis, and more. Within 60 years of introduction it had spread to 50% of British counties. These invertebrates in turn are used as food by fish and other wildlife species (e.g. Bury the roots a few centimeters so that the foliage is flush. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. They are found in temperate regions and particularly in moist or shady locations. They often grow on infertile soils in a wide range of moisture conditions. The hard rush is a tuft forming species with the shoots borne on an extensive rhizome system. However, it may not be possible to plough on shallow soils upland soils. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. They do well in boggy soils and are also reliable growers under fluctuating water conditions. Corrections? All rushes are controlled by ploughing or rotary cultivations but this may stimulate seed germination and the establishment of new infestations unless the new sward develops rapidly. You can find more information in the excellent Illustrated Guide to the Common Grasses, Sedges and Rushes of New Zealand. Although, for some extremely sensitive people, any part of a plant they are affected by can cause irritation. They range from the 2-metre-tall J. pallidus of coastal swamps to tiny 2-centimetre J. pusillu s, found in wetland turfs. Example of the bulrush genus Schoenoplectus. Leaves are mainly basal and can be flat but more often rounded and stem-like. Toad rush is found on tracks liable to temporary flooding. Most of the Juncus species grow exclusively in wetland habitats. Identify the problem. Common rush can be grown as an evergreen container plant or in the bog or water garden. It is native in marshes, ditches, bogs, wet meadows, damp woods and by water, mostly on acid soils. Their leaves and stems are grass-like but are cylindrical and pithy. The blunt-flowered rush is a rhizomatous perennial native in fens, marshes and dune slacks. Seeds of hard rush are dispersed by wind and rain splash, also on the feet of birds and on shoes. Rushes are mostly perennial, nonwoody plants. From late spring to summer, rounded heads of very small, greenish brown, scaly flowers emerge on the sides of the stems just below the stem tips. It occurs throughout Britain on neutral, base rich and acid soils, although the impression is sometimes given that compact rush is restricted to the latter. The application of lime has been suggested as a control measure in the past. The jointed rush is widespread in waterlogged areas in hilly districts. Seeds of the soft and slender rush become mucilaginous and sticky when wet and this may aid dispersal in wet conditions. The most species-rich groups are the rushes (Juncus spp.) Sharp-flowered rush flowers from July to September and is the last of the common rushes to flower. The seeds can remain viable in soil for 20 years or more and have been recorded in enormous numbers in the soil beneath pastures. Soft rush flowers from June to July in the south and July to August in the north. Like the name implies, aquatic grasses are grassy plants than grow in water. Sometimes it is just a certain part of the plant that irritates, like the sap of Euphorbia or the roots of hyacinth. Rushes make up most of the species in the family Juncaceae. Rush seeds require light for germination and seedlings are only likely to emerge in open areas left bare due to poaching etc. Wire rus… References. The flowers last well when cut. They provide an important home for many species, including the rare Bittern. A good vertical accent plant, Juncus effusus (Common Rush) is a clump-forming, evergreen, rhizomatous perennial boasting smooth, upright, rounded, bright green stems that form arching fans. These tall plants have smooth green stems that have brown flowers at the tips. Their stems are often used to weave strong mats, baskets, and chair seats. At one time, the soft rush and the compact rush were treated as a single species. The leaves are tough and fibrous but are eaten by cattle, horses and sheep in winter and spring when other food is scarce. Plant rush alongside streams and ponds, though it will tolerate dryer conditions elsewhere. It is locally frequent in England and Wales especially in unreclaimed areas where the groundwater is alkaline. The seeds require light for germination. Flowering occurs in late June and July. $19741 donated. Seed germination occurs in May and June but a bare area is needed for successful seedling establishment. Rushes Biology of rushes Rushes in North America Rushes in ecosystems Economically important rushes Resources Rushes are monocotyledonous plants in the genus Juncus. The stem of such plants used in making baskets, mats, the seats of chairs, etc. There are 9 common species of rush in North America. Poison ivy may come to mind, but many common garden plants can also be skin irritants for sensitive people. Rushes are a particular problem when poor pasture is ploughed for cropping as happened during World Wars 1 and 2. Any of several stiff aquatic or marsh plants of the genus Juncus, having hollow or pithy stems and small flowers. Omissions? The vegetative tillers grow out into the light and become re-established. Cutting before flowering may help to stop the spread by preventing further seed shed but there may be many seeds present already in the soil seedbank. Once established, the perennial rushes spread vegetatively and by the small seeds that are produced in vast numbers. The rhizomes that develop form a dense horizontal mat 6 to 50 mm below the soil surface. Through campaigning, advice, community work and research, our aim is to get everyone growing ‘the organic way’. Flowering rush is Butomus umbellatus (family Butomaceae). Shoots commence vigorous growth in March. Because they can ride out intermittent dry spells, theyre useful for rain gardens and bioretention, and other features where water conditions are variable. The prostrate growth form may root at the nodes and form clonal patches. Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are all known to cause an itchy rash. There are about 400 species in the rush family, distributed among eight or nine genera. The word is an ancient one originating from Sanskrit The wind-dispersed seeds are blown a short distance away from the parent plant. effusus). In heath rush, the seed capsules open in dry weather and many seeds are dispersed by the wind. Rushes and sedges have similar strap like leaves to grasses, but are a different botanical family. It is absent from dry habitats. Uses for pickerel rush: Pickerel rush makes a striking specimen plant for medium to large gardens, but it can be a bit overbearing in a small one. Dragonflies need these types of pond plants to survive around your pond. It occurs on damp barish ground on roadsides, tracks and pathways. Juncus patens (California Gray Rush) is an evergreen perennial plant that forms dense clumps of narrow, erect, gray-green to gray-blue, leafless stems. Native sedges can be found thriving in just about any environment, from woodlands to marshes, and even dry sand. Plants left on the soil surface exposed to sun and wind are susceptible to drying out. The average number of seeds per plant is 33,000. The curious corkscrew rush loves wet or boggy conditions. Native Wetland Plants. Bulrushes grow in wet locations, including ponds, marshes, and lakes. Like the name implies, aquatic grasses are grassy plants than grow in water. Heath rush is intolerant of shade both at the seedling stage and when mature. Cattails, rushes, bulrushes, all words used to describe a tall grass like plant that grows in wetlands distinguished in mid summer through fall by the tall central spike that ends in a brown sausage shaped flower and seed pod. with 80 species. is a registered charity in England and Wales (no. The heath rush is a tough, wiry, sward forming plant with a compact, slow-spreading rhizome. List of rushes (Juncaceae family) in Minnesota. Toad rush seed germinates from April to December with peaks in spring and autumn. There are many native aquatic grasses, sedges and rushes in Florida. Hydrilla (Hydrillaverticillata), originally from Korea, is an intrusive plant that grows in rivers … Soft rush, the main weedy species, is widespread and forms tussocks that extend by means of the short creeping rhizomes from which new shoots and ultimately new plants arise. frog grass, saltweed, J. minutulus). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Bulrush plant weeds can grow 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3 m.) tall and survive in marshes, bogs, sand or gravel bars. In soft rush, vegetative spread is the primary method of reproduction and spread. A preliminary rotary cultivation may be needed to break up the tussocks before ploughing. Rushes favor the edges of ponds, bogs, and low, moist areas. Heath rush can grow on a range of soils but cannot withstand competition from the fast growing species in base-rich habitats and is usually confined to acidic or peat soils. Seed is set from September to October. Rushes are spiky plants often found in poor agricultural land, waste areas, alongside ponds and other wet areas. A variety of insects feed on rushes and a number of pathogens attack them too. It consists of 8 genera and about 464 known species of slow-growing, rhizomatous, herbaceous monocotyledonous plants that may superficially resemble grasses and sedges. The most species-rich groups are the rushes (Juncus spp.) 298104) and Scotland (SC046767). Rushes (Juncus spp.) It is a hard type of bull rush that can handle too much or not enough water. Compact rush flowers from early May to July and a plant may produce 500,000 seeds. No matter how busy your week has been, there is always thyme in the day to test your knowledge on all things green. Common and widespread, freshwater rushes include the native, Hoary Rush (J. radula), Finger Rush (J. subsecundus), Hollow Rush (J. amabilis), Yellow Rush (J. flavidus), Green Rush (J. gregiflorus), Tall Rush (J. procerus), Pallid Rush (J. pallidus), Loose-flower Rush (J. pauciflorus), Joint-leaf Rush (J. holoschoenus) and Broad-leaf Rush (J. planifolius) and the introduced, Jointed Rush (J. articularus) … In lowlands, cutting followed by grazing is effective. long, flowers with petals and sepals open at maturity; perianth segments (corolla and calyx divisions) with a green midrib, individual flowers 4 to 5 mm long with 6 stamens and pronounced bright pink twisted stigmas . Rushes - Juncaceae Family. The name is particularly applied to several sedge family genera: Cyperus, the genus which includes the plant species likely referred to in the Biblical account of the Ark of bulrushes Topping in early August followed by grazing with hardy breeds of cattle or ponies over 2 years is said to give good control in uplands. It is found on acid soils throughout Britain but is common only in the north and west. Rushes provide cover for wildlife especially wading birds. common rush, J. communis var. Wetland plants are generally classified into three main types: emergent, floating, or submerged. Some grow completely submerges in water, while other have their roots under water and the top of the plant came be seen above the water line. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/rush-plant, rushes - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In closed communities regeneration is mainly by rhizome growth. The production of numerous seeds with high viability and extensive dispersal give heath rush an advantage in colonising recently disturbed areas. • Rushes: Solid, round stems; leaves few; fruit a several to many-seeded capsule surrounded by 6 scale-like structures (tepals) Stem Cross Sections Illustrations from Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin, Version 3.1 by Eggers and Reed (2014) BOTANICAL TERMS: RUSHES (Juncus) Native plants are always the best choice for use in landscapes, restoration projects, storm water projects, and naturalized areas. It is a perennial with an extensive rhizome system and forms a sward rather than tussocks but is very variable in habit. Seedlings are sensitive to competition and to moisture deficit but become tougher once established. wire rush, J. glaucus). Rushes The word ‘rush’ gets used for plants in many botanical families: Juncus, Cyperus, Eleocharis, and more. Share. It has a distinctive appearance and shows little variation. The sharp-flowered rush has a spreading habit and is common in wet pastures. Toad rush is found on tracks liable to temporary flooding. Some grow completely submerges in water, while other have their roots under water and the top of the plant came be seen above the water line. Grasses, and the grass-like rushes and sedges, make an excellent addition to any garden. Published by the NZ Plant Protection Society. Juncaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the rush family. Slender rush (J. tenuis) (Syn. New Zealand has 15 native and 32 introduced species of Juncus – the most common type of rush. The horizontal rhizome is far creeping. goal $12000. By Adrian Cho May. Click on the buttons to learn more about each specific species. Status: Both Australian native and introduced species. Rushes make up most of the species in the family Juncaceae. This kind of bulrush grows in North America and is very hardy. Handouts: Introduction to Grasses, Sedges and Rushes by Steve Eggers Rushes and grasses for ponds, lakes and streams and damp areas. Plants may not flower until 5 years old.